Cervical screening has decreased incidence of cervical cancer and death related to that in the UK. It detects precancerous cells, which can be successfully treated with colposcope (magnifying camera) guided loop excision of abnormal area. This treatment is performed mostly in outpatient clinic under local anesthesia. Most of the abnormal smears are due to human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, which can be screened during smear test and sometimes prevented with HPV vaccine.
Colposcopy is useful for persistent post coital and intermenstrual bleeding to diagnose various causes and treat them.
It is also helpful in diagnosing various vulval and vaginal precancerous conditions (vulvo/vaginoscopy).
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